Biology as Poetry: Microbiology

Bacteriophage Ecology Group

Normal Flora

Those microorganisms consistently present within a specific environment.

Also described as normal microbiobiota, normal microflora, or an environment's microbiome. Note that the term environment includes more than just landscapes but also specific locations found in association within individual organisms such as ourselves.

Normal flora microorganism associated with the human body typically are categorized according the location. The following are lists that summarize those found in various introductory microbiology texts. Note that just because an organism has been identified as a member of normal flora does not mean that the same organism cannot also serve as a pathogen in the same host species. Note also that the various species have been listed in alphabetical order rather than in order of abundance, importance, or other properties.

EAR (outer): diphteroids,  Enterobacteriaceae (but not commonly),  Pseudomonas spp. Staphylococcus epidermidis), 

EYES (the conjunctiva): BacteriaCorynebacterium diphteroids,  Haemophilis Micrococcus Proprionibacterium Staphylococcus (S. aureus, S. epidermidis),  Streptococcus spp.

GENITOURINARY SYSTEM (urethra): BacteriaBacteroides diphteroids (aerobic),  Enterococcus Fusobacterium Klebsiella Lactobacillus Micrococcus Mycobacterium spp. Peptostreptococcus spp. Proteus Pseudomonas Staphylococcus Streptococcus spp.

GENITOURINARY SYSTEM (vagina): BacteriaClostridium lactobacilli,  Streptococcus FungiCandida ProtozoanTrichomonas vaginalis

INTESTINE, particularly LARGE INTESTINE (colon): BacteriaBacteroides Bifidobaterium Citrobater Enterobacter Enterococcus Escherichia coli Fusobacterium Klebsiella Lactobacillus Proteus FungiCandida


MOUTH: BacteriaActinomyces Bacteroides Corynebacterium Fusobacterium Haemophilis Lactobacillus Neisseria Staphylococcus Streptococcus Treponema Veillonella FungiCandida

SKINBacteriaAcinetobacter Bacillus Brevibacterium Corynebacterium diphteroids,  Malassezia furfur Micrococcus Mycobacterium (but not commonly),  Proprionibacterium acnes Staphylococcus Streptococcus spp. FungiCandida Pityrosporum Malassezia

STOMACH: Lactobacillus Peptostreptococcus Staphylococcus Streptococcus

UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT (nose): Bacteriadiphteroids (aerobic),  Staphylococcus (S. aureus, S. epidermidis), 

UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT (throat): Bacteriadiphteroids,  Haemophilis Neisseria Staphylococcus (S. aureus, S. epidermidis),  Streptococcus pneumoniae

Video (Interview, fecal transplants versus C. difficile)

Radio (The bacteria found in the human colon, all 5000-plus species)

Video (Microorganisms living on our skin)

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