Respiratory Disease

∞ generated and posted on 2016.04.01 ∞

Diseases and conditions of the respiratory system, that is, respiratory disease/pulmonary disease as associated with the upper respiratory tract and lower respiratory tract/lungs.

Respiratory diseases/pulmonary diseases (see also cardiopulmonary diseases) include acute respiratory distress, asbestosis, asphyxia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, asthma, bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, common cold, cystic fibrosis, emphysema, influenza, interstitial lung disease, laryngitis, lung cancer, lung congestion, lung infarction, myasthenia gravis, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, pleural effusion, pleurisy, pneumonia, pneumoconiosis, pneumothorax, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, rhinitis, tracheitis, tuberculosis, etc.

This page contains the following terms: Cystic fibrosis, Emphysema, Pneumonia, Rhinitis, Tuberculosis



Cystic fibrosis

Genetic disease that is associated with an accumulation of thick mucus in the lungs.
Cystic fibrosis results in changes in function of other body organs including hepatic (liver), intestinal, and pancreatic, and also gives rise to skin that tastes salty. The disease is a consequence of a defect in a membrane protein that is responsible for transporting the anion chloride and this defect is inherited as a recessive mutation. Thus, cystic fibrosis typically appears from the mating of two otherwise not affected carriers (heterozygotes) whereas the affected individual has received two copies of the defective gene (i.e., allele; these "two-copy" individuals are described instead as homozygotes).

Treatment involves efforts to reduce the impact of mucus buildup (in the lungs) on breathing ability though other organs can require treatment as well.

The above video is a fast introduction to the molecular basis of cystic fibrosis, but can be a little difficult to fully appreciate towards the end.

The above video provides a nice overview of cystic fibrosis pathophysiology but exactly halfway through it repeats itself without sound!?!

The above video is a fairly high-level overview of cystic fibrosis pathology and genetics but is relative short.

The above video is a fairly high-level overview of cystic fibrosis pathology and genetics.



Emphysema

Breakdown and reduced functioning of lung tissue as occurs in association with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Emphysema is a result of chronic damage to lungs that results in a fragility to alveoli and consequent degeneration. It is typically seen in association with chronic bronchitis which together with emphysema make up chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Together these result in difficulties in breathing. There is no cure for emphysema, or for COPD more generally, though medical management is possible. Prevention involves an avoidance of lung damaging circumstances or materials, particularly though not exclusively an avoidance of smoking.

The above video walks through the symptoms and causes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

As advertised, the above video provides a "Really short video on the basics of emphysema."



Pneumonia

Inflammation of the alveoli.
Pneumonia is typically caused by infection by microorganisms and also typically results in the accumulation of fluid within the lungs, particularly the alveoli. This can result is breathing difficulties and, if sufficiently severe, death. Treatment is of the underlying infection, if that is possible, such as via the application of antibiotics.

The above video provides a quick overview of what pneumonia is all about.

The above video provides a reasonably comprehensive overview of what pneumonia is all about; note that they get their definition of bronchiole a bit wrong, however.



Rhinitis

Inflammation of the nose resulting for example in a stuffy, runny nose.
Rhinitis can be caused by allergic reactions (allergies), viral infections, or bacterial infections, with only the latter potentially treatable using antibiotics. Rhinitis associated with viral infections is often accompanied by a common cold. Viral or bacterial infections occasionally can progress to pneumonia, a far more serious infection.

The above is a patient education video on allergic rhinitis; unfortunately, the sound quality isn't great.



Tuberculosis

Often fatal, difficult to cure, bacterial infection particularly of the lungs.
Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These bacteria can be aerosolized in the course of coughing, and upon being breathed in can initiate infections. Infections are slow to develop and can be difficult to cure using antibiotics, even given infection by fully antibiotic-sensitive bacteria. In addition, there are numerous examples of antibiotic-resistant tuberculosis that are extremely difficult and in some cases in fact impossible to cure. Each year approximately 1 to 2 million people die of tuberculosis, worldwide, and approximately 10 million people become newly infected, with most of these infections and deaths occurring in developing countries.

The above video provides a pretty good overview of what tuberculosis is and how it spreads, etc.


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