Goiter

∞ generated and posted on 2016.03.05 ∞

Diseases and conditions associated with poor nutrition, whether overall poor nutrient intake, including in terms of macronutrients, or insufficient intake of specific micronutrients (i.e., vitamins or minerals), though in addition is the issue of excessive intake of nutrients, including of Calories.

Nutritional deficiencies include anorexia, beriberi, calcium deficiency, dehydration, folate deficiency, goiter, hypoglycemia, iodine deficiency, iron-deficiency anemia, kwashiorkor, malnutrition, marasmus, niacin deficiency, night blindness, obesity, overnutrition, pellagra, pernicious anemia, potassium deficiency, protein-energy malnutrition, riboflavin deficiency, rickets, scurvy, thiamine deficiency, undernutrition, vitamin A deficiency vitamin D deficiency, vitamin K deficiency, xerophthalmia, etc.

This page contains the following terms: Goiter, Night blindness, Pernicious anemia, Scurvy, Rickets



Goiter

Disease associated with dietary iodine deficiency.
A goiter is an enlarged thyroid gland. Worldwide as well as historically this enlargement was most typically associated with deficiencies in the mineral, iodine. Given sufficient supplies of iodine in the diet, which is typically the case within more developed societies (and given supplemental iodine availability, particularly as an additive to salt), goiters instead are more typically associated with autoimmune disease involving the thyroid gland. Treatment of goiters often is a relatively straightforward process.


Links to terms of possible interest: Dietary iodine, Goiter, Iodine, Thyroid gland

The above video provides a quick rundown of what goiters represent.



Night blindness

Disease associated with vitamin A deficiency.
Night blindness is associated with causes in addition to vitamin A deficiency so from a dietary perspective this is one consequence of insufficient vitamin A intake. Vitamin A deficiencies also can lead to death, though an early sign of such deficiency is night blindness.

An overview of night blindness and its multiple causes.



Pernicious anemia

Disease associated with vitamin B12 deficiency.
This vitamin B12 deficiency as seen with pernicious anemia is primarily that associated with an autoimmune loss of those cells of the stomach that are responsible for releasing what is known as intrinsic factor. Intrinsic factor is a protein that binds to vitamin B12 and facilitates its absorption within the ileum of the small intestine. In the absence of sufficient uptake of vitamin B12 there is a failure by the body to produce red blood cells, resulting in anemia, that is, a reduction in the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood due to quantitative or qualitative declines in red blood cell populations.

The above video provides a short overview of the cause and consequence of pernicious anemia.



Scurvy

Disease associated with vitamin C deficiency.
The major pathology that stems from a vitamin C deficiency occurs due the requirement for vitamin C to synthesize the protein collagen. Collagen is the primary structural protein of the body and a key constituent of especially fibrous connective tissue. Without collagen production for the sake of collagen replacement, connective tissues fail and this connective tissue failure results in many of the symptoms of scurvy. Scurvy is seen primarily in populations, such as of sailors of yore, who were subject during extended voyages to long periods without access to fresh foods, particularly to fresh fruits and vegetables.


Rickets

Disease associated with vitamin D deficiency.
Rickets also is associated with calcium or phosphorus deficiencies, all as normally supplied in the diet. These three nutrients together are required for a proper hardening of the bones (ossification). Calcium and phosphorus make up the actual ossification of bone (in the form of calcium hydroxyapatite).

Vitamin D instead and by contrast is required for the proper uptake (absorption) of calcium in the diet. Thus, too little vitamin D → too little uptake of calcium → impaired ossificationbones that either are brittle or deformed or both. Rickets is seen primarily in children who are suffering from some degree of starvation.

The above video provides a quick overview of rickets.


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