Anemia

∞ generated and posted on 2016.03.20 ∞

Diseases and conditions of the circulatory system particularly as associated with blood and blood vessels.

Diseases of the blood and blood vessels include anemia, aneurysm, aortic dissection, arteriovenous fistula, atherosclerosis, carbon monoxide poisoning, cardiovascular disease, deep vein thrombosis, erythroblastosis fetalis, high blood pressure, hypertension, jaundice, leukemia, low blood pressure, mononucleosis, peripheral artery disease (peripheral artery disorder, peripheral vascular disease), shock, vascular disease, vasculitis, vericose veins, etc.

This page contains the following terms: Erythroblastosis fetalis, Anemia, Carbon monoxide poisoning, Leukemia, Mononucleosis, Jaundice, Shock



Erythroblastosis fetalis

Disease of newborns associated with Rh blood type incompatibilities.
Erythroblastosis fetalis, also known as hemolytic disease of the newborn, is a consequence of an Rh-negative mother, an Rh-positive father, and multiple pregnancies involving an Rh-positive child. The problems arise as the mother has opportunity to produce antibodies to the Rh-positive antigen. This generally does not occur until following the birth of the first Rh-positive child.

These antibodies, so produced, however can then attack the red blood cells of Rh-positive fetuses during subsequent pregnancies, resulting in lysis and loss of red blood cells. It is possible to block the occurrence of erythroblastosis fetalis by treating the mother with anti-Rh immunoglobulin (antibodies) to prevent her from ever mounting an immune response of her own against the Rh factor.

The above video does a fairly good job of quickly walking through how it is that erythroblastosis fetalis comes to occur.



Anemia

Lower than adequate densities of normal hemoglobin in blood.
Anemia can be a consequence either of too few red blood cells or instead of insufficient quantities of hemoglobin per red blood cell. It also can result from a lack of proper functioning of hemoglobin molecules. Given the variety of ways in which anemia can be manifest, there also are numerous causes including, particularly, iron deficiency.

The result regardless is a reduction in the ability of blood to carry oxygen and therefore a relative lack of oxygen within our tissues. This in turn results in an impairment of body functions that we perceive as lethargy, along with additional symptoms. These symptoms in turn can vary with the severity of anemia which can range from mild deficiencies in blood carrying capacity of oxygen to severe deficiencies.


Links to terms of possible interest: Anemia, Angina, Enlarged spleen, Fatigue, Heart attack, Heart palpitations

The above video provides a nice overview of the functioning of red blood cells with mention of anemia towards the end, which of course represents a failure of proper functioning of red blood cells, either because there are aren't enough of them or because individually they aren't functioning properly.



Carbon monoxide poisoning

Disease characterized by chemical binding to hemoglobin that blocks oxygen binding.
Carbon monoxide or CO (contrasting carbon ioxide or CO2) has a higher affinity for hemoglobin than does oxygen (or O2). The result is a displacement of oxygen from hemoglobin that has the effect of lowering the blood's ability to carry oxygen. If the oxygen carrying capacity of blood is reduced sufficiently then this can result in death.

Treatment involves patient exposure to elevated levels of oxygen to displace carbon monoxide and allow carbon monoxide's removal from the body via exhaling. Carbon monoxide itself is a consequence of incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels, e.g., as associated with a poorly vented furnace.

The above video does a good job of walking through the symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning and also illustrates what the problem is, with carbon monoxide displacing oxygen on hemoglobin.

The above video is basically a public safety message on the dangers of carbon monoxide (here is a link to the mentioned Vitas Gerulaitis).



Leukemia

Malignancy characterized by excessive blood counts of white blood cells.
The actual malignancy, that is, the cancer, can be centered either in the blood itself or instead the white blood cell progenitor organ, the bone marrow. The disease is associated with a large number of symptoms that tend to be a result of dysfunction of one or more of the additional cell types (more broadly, formed elements) that are produced by bone marrow. Various treatments exist with also varying success rates depending on patient age as well as leukemia type.


Links to terms of possible interest: Enlarged spleen, Fatigue, Leukemia, Night sweats, Swollen lymph nodes

The above video provides an introduction to acute myeloid leukemia as well as acute lymphoblastic leukemia though with quite a bit of sophistication.



Mononucleosis

Virus-caused disease often associated during teen years with fatigue and other symptoms.
Mononucleosis, less formally "mono" and more formally "infectious mononucleosis", is usually caused by Epstein-Barr virus, which is a type of herpes virus. Mononucleosis is transmitted via direct contact between individuals, particularly via saliva and thus is known colloquially as the "kissing disease". As with any viral infection, mononucleosis cannot be treated using antibiotics and indeed cannot be treated except to allow rest as needed, provide plenty of fluids, treat symptoms, and to otherwise take precautions to avoid transmission to others. In addition, infectious mononucleosis can result in temporary enlargement of the spleen which can increase the potential for spleen rupture such as given participation in contact sports. The association with "blood" is that the cells that are targeted by the virus during later stages of infection are B cells, a kind of white blood cell.


Links to terms of possible interest: Enlarged spleen, Fatigue, Fever, Infectious mononucleosis, Mononucleosis, Photophobia, Swollen lymph nodes, Swollen tonsils

The above video provides a nice medical overview of mononucleosis.

The above video is a nicely presented and indeed fun overview of mononucleosis.



Jaundice

Yellowing of the skin and other portions of the body associated with buildup of the pigment bilirubin in the blood.
Jaundice often is a sign of insufficient liver functioning. Bilirubin is a breakdown product of heme that occurs in the course of normal red blood cell turnover (red blood cells on average normally last only approximately 120 days). A consequence of this red blood cell destruction is the breakdown of the heme associated with hemoglobin. The role of the liver is to remove the bilirubin and then excrete it within bile and it is particularly a failure of bilirubin removal from the blood that gives rise to jaundice.

The above video is an impressive though somewhat sophisticated overview of jaundice.



Shock

Acutely poor delivery of oxygen to tissues such as due to pathologically low blood pressure.
Generally shock occurs when normal compensatory mechanisms ‐ as would normally result in homeostasis – give rise to compensatory mechanisms that instead have the effect of reducing the efficiency of blood circulation in a positive feedback manner.

More precisely, shock is referred to as circulatory shock. See also septic shock.

There are a number of causes of circulatory shock. Septic shock, for instance, is associated with systemic increases in arterial diameters (vasodilation) that has the effect of reducing blood volume as a function of blood vessel capacity, resulting in reduction in blood pressure.

The above video walks us through just what circulatory shock consists of as well as it cause and some symptoms.


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